如何优化前端性能?

InfoQ 2020-11-11 14:13:44
前端 优化 性能 InfoQ


{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"blockquote","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"导读:随着前端的范畴逐渐扩大,深度逐渐下沉,富前端必然带来的一个问题就是性能。特别是在大型复杂项目中,重前端业务可能因为一个小小的数据依赖,导致整个页面卡顿甚至崩溃。本文基于Quick BI(数据可视化分析平台)历年架构变迁中性能的排查、解决和总结出的“个性”问题,尝试总结整个前端层面相对“共性”的问题,提供一些前端性能解决思路。"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"一 引发性能问题原因?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"引发性能问题的原因通常不是单方面缘由,特别是大型系统迭代多年后,长期积劳成疾造成,所以我们要必要分析找到症结所在,并按瓶颈优先级逐个击破,拿我们项目为例,大概分几个方面:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"1 资源包过大"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"通过Chrome DevTools的Network标签,我们可以拿到页面实际拉取的资源大小(如下图):"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/df\/ee\/df481bf05a1cf9900ff5f210f6bc05ee.png","alt":null,"title":null,"style":null,"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"经过前端高速发展,近几年项目更新迭代,前端构建产物也在急剧增大,因为要业务先行,很多同学引入库和编码过程并没有考虑性能问题,导致构建的包增至几十MB,这样带来两个显著的问题:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"bulletedlist","content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"弱(普通)网络下,首屏资源下载耗时长"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"资源解压解析执行慢"}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"对于第一个问题,基本上会影响所有移动端用户,并且会耗费大量不必要的用户带宽,对客户是一个经济上的隐式损失和体验损失。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"对于第二个问题,会影响所有用户,用户可能因为等待时间过长而放弃使用。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"下图展示了延迟与用户反应:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/64\/78\/64ec238956f090fc96f3620f63946478.png","alt":null,"title":null,"style":null,"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"2 代码耗时长"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在代码执行层面,项目迭代中引发的性能问题普遍是因为开发人员编码质量导致,大概以下几个缘由:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"不必要的数据流监听"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"此场景在hooks+redux的场景下会更容易出现,如下代码:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"codeblock","attrs":{"lang":""},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"\nconst FooComponent = () => {\n const data = useSelector(state => state.fullData);\n return ;\n};"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"假设fullData是频繁变更的大对象,虽然FooComponent仅依赖其.bar.baz属性,fullData每次变更也会导致Foo重新渲染。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"双刃剑cloneDeep"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}}]}
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