Operation of DOM object / object oriented in JavaScript series

DOGIOOH 2020-11-13 01:49:48
operation dom object object oriented

JavaScript Operation of the series DOM object / object-oriented

01 operation DOM object

  • DOM : Document Object Model ( Document object model )

    because HTML After the document is parsed by the browser, it is a tree DOM Trees , To change the HTML Structure , It needs to pass JavaScript To operate DOM.

  • obtain DOM node

    • Operating a DOM Before the node , First get this DOM node . The most common methods are document.getElementById() document.getElementsByTagName(), as well as CSS Selectors document.getElementsByClassName().

    • document.getElementById() You can directly locate the only one DOM node .document.getElementsByTagName() and document.getElementsByClassName() Always return to a group DOM node . Choose... Precisely DOM, You can locate the parent node first , Then select from the parent node , To narrow down .

  • Node properties

    parentNode // Return the parent of the node
    childNodes // Returns the collection of child nodes
    childNodes[i]// Returns... In the collection of child nodes i Nodes
    firstChild// Returns the first child of the node , The most common use is to access the text node of the element
    lastChild // Returns the last child of the node
    nextSibling // Next node
    previousSibling// Last node
  • Element attributes

    firstElementChild // Returns the first child of the node , The most common use is to access the element
    The text node of element
    lastElementChild // Returns the last child of the node
    nextElementSibling // Next node
    previousElementSibling // Last node

  • to update DOM

    To get a DOM After node , We can update it .

    • There are two ways to update the text of a node :

      • modify innerHTML attribute , This is a very powerful way , Not only can you modify one DOM The text content of the node , It can also go directly through HTML Segment modification DOM The subtree inside the node .
      • modify innerText or textContent attribute , But this method can't set any HTML label .
    • to update CSS The way of pattern :

      • DOM Node style Property corresponds to all CSS, You can directly get or set .
      // Get the node first ele, Re pass style Property update CSS style
      ele.style.fontsize = '50px';

  • Insert DOM
    • Get one first DOM node , If it's time to DOM Node is empty , for example ,<div></div>, that , Use it directly innerHTML = <span>child</span> I can modify it DOM Content of node , amount to “ Insert ” New DOM node .
    • If this DOM Node is not empty , There are two ways to insert
      • A.appendChild(B), hold B Add nodes to A The last child of the node .
      • insertBefore( A,B ), hold A The node is inserted into B Before the node

  • establish DOM
    • createElement( tagName), Create a tag named tagName New element node of .

  • Delete DOM

    • To delete a node , First, we need to get the node itself and its parent node , then , Call the removeChild Cut yourself out .

      // Get the node you want to remove :
      var self = document.getElementById('to-be-removed');
      // Get the parent of the node to be removed :
      var parent = self.parentElement;
      // Delete :
      var removed = parent.removeChild(self);
      // matters needing attention : Although the deleted node is not in the document tree , But it's still in memory , Can be added to another location at any time .

  • Replace DOM

    • To replace a node , First, we need to get the node itself and its parent node , then , Call the replaceChild Replace yourself with .

      // Get the node you want to replace :
      var old = document.getElementById('to-be-replaced');
      // Get the parent of the node to be removed :
      var parent = self.parentElement;
      // Create a new node
      var new=document.createElement("img");
      // Set properties for new nodes
      // Replace :

02 object-oriented

JavaScript Don't distinguish the concept of classification and instance , It's through prototypes (prototype) To implement object-oriented programming .

  • Create objects

    • The way 1: adopt new Object();
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    // Create an object , adopt new Object();
    var person = new Object();
    // Set properties to objects object . Property name = Property value ;
    person.name = "John";
    person.age = 18;
    person.sex = ' male ';
    // Set methods for objects object . Method name = function(){};
    person.showName = function () {
    // Calling method
    • The way 2: Use curly braces
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    // Use curly braces to define an object
    // Be careful :
    //1. Assign values using colons
    //2. Multiple attributes are separated by commas
    //3. The last property or method does not need to be comma ;
    var student = {
    sex:' male ',
    showName:function () {
    • The way 3: Using constructors ( The first letter of the constructor must be uppercase )
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    // Use constructors to create multiple objects of the same type
    function person(name,age,sex) {
    this.name = name;
    this.age = age;
    this.sex = sex;
    this.showName = function () {
    var student1 = new person("John",23,' male ');
    var student2 = new person("Snow",24,' Woman ');
    var student3 = new person("Lily",25,' Woman ');

  • Prototype object

    • JavaScript A prototype will be set for each object created , Point to its prototype object .

    ​ When we use obj.xxx When accessing the properties of an object ,JavaScript The engine first looks up the property on the current object , If not found , Go to the prototype object , If you haven't found it yet , All the way up to Object.prototype object , Last , If you haven't found it yet , You can only return undefined.

    • Each function has one prototype attribute , This property is a pointer , You can point the prototype of an object to an object .

    • Take the code in create object mode 3 as an example , use new Person() The created object also gets a... From the prototype constructor attribute , It points to a function Student In itself , Its prototype chain is as follows :
    student2 -→ Person.prototype ----> Object.prototype ----> null
    • If we pass new Person() Created a lot of objects , Of these objects showName Functions actually only need to share the same function , This can save a lot of memory . To make the created object share a showName function , According to the property search principle of the object , All we have to do is put showName The function moves to student1student2 These objects can be on the same prototype , That is to say Person.prototype. Modify the code as follows :
    function person(name,age,sex) {
    this.name = name;
    this.age = age;
    this.sex = sex
    Person.prototype.showName = function () {

  • Prototype inheritance

    A prototype object is an instance of another prototype object . The related prototypes are progressive , It forms a chain of instances and prototypes , It's the prototype chain .

    JavaScript The way of prototype inheritance is :

    1. Define a new constructor , And use it internally call() Call hope “ Inherit ” Constructor for , And bind the this;
    2. With the help of intermediate functions F Implement prototype chain inheritance , It's best to go through packaged inherits Function completion ;
    3. Continue to define new methods on the prototype of the new constructor .


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