Looking at the technology trend of big front end in 2019, the concept of Web OS is landing

Alicloud Encyclopedia 2020-11-13 04:00:31
looking technology trend big end


Source of contribution : Alicloud developer community


Big front end

2018 It's been a lot of years , from React v16 Universal , To jQuery By GitHub To finish the historical mission in stages , Beyond the sigh , Version Emperor AngularJS It's released again V6 and V7 Two versions . These are not really big news , In contrast to the three frameworks , It's more and more like , Getting closer to WebComponents standard , And the packaging of peripheral application level has begun to grow exponentially . Applets are the hottest technology of the year , One after another , Fast app also wants a piece of the pie .PWA Into a stable period , In especial PWA The desktop version , Can let us have a better look at PC The whole picture of desktop development .

Mobile terminal is still based on strong operation , Companies are starting to stop All in Move , Start to pay attention to multi terminal development , It's time to start spelling out the details .TypeScript Full bloom ,GraphQL stir ,WebAssembly It also opens the door to Multilingualism in the browser . All this implies , The browser is the operating system , Can you imagine what the front end will look like in the future ? Now follow me to interpret them one by one .

Standardization of the three frameworks

Some friends make complaints about it :“Vue It is characterized by fast starting , It's quite easy to use at the beginning , But if you take over someone else's writing Vue project , And again React Compare the , You'll thank you React Of . But when Vue 3.0 After the release , I don't think he would have said that . because Vue 3 Of Class API and React The writing is as like as two peas. , This change is not Proxy and TypeScript, It's about supporting native Class Writing . Do you use Class To write , The code and React Writing is as like as two peas. !

import Vue from 'vue'
class App extends Vue.Component {
  count = 0
  up() {
  down() {
  render() {
    return (
        <button onClick={() => this.up()}>+</button>
        <button onClick={() => this.down()}>-</button>
Vue.render(<App />, document.body as HTMLElement)

As can be seen from the above discussion , The three front-end frameworks have stabilized 、 Standardization , In my opinion, the future is WebComponents Of .

WebComponents Is the specification , The first and most famous one is Google The strength of JavaScript library Polymer, It helps us create custom reusable HTML Elements , And use them to build high performance 、 Maintainable App. stay I/O At the conference ,Google Launched Polymer 3.0,Polymer 3.0 Dedicated to Web Component ecosystem from HUML Imports Transferred to the ES Modules, The package management system will support npm, This makes it easier for you to base Polymer Of Web Components and your favorite tools 、 Frameworks work together .

 <script src="node_modules/@webcomponents/webcomponents-loader.js"></script>
  <script type="module">
    import {PolymerElement, html} from '@polymer/polymer';
    class MyElement extends PolymerElement {
      static get properties() { return { mood: String }}
      static get template() {
        return html`
          <style> .mood { color: green; } </style>
          Web Components are <span class="mood">[[mood]]</span>!
    customElements.define('my-element', MyElement);
  <my-element mood="happy"></my-element>

And then there is 2 The project has a certain reference value :

1.Rax Also provided is a atag Of UI WebComponents library .

2.LitElement It's a simple, lightweight, quick creation WebComponents Base class of , It can be understood as Polymer Minimum implementation version .

LitElement The main features include WebComponent Lifecycle model support and one-way data binding model . It obeys WebComponents standard , Use lit-html Module this fast HTML Rendering engine definition and rendering HTML Templates . The most important thing is that it's very browser compatible , Very good support for mainstream browsers . because LitHtml be based on tagged template, combination ES6 Medium template, So it doesn't need to be precompiled 、 Preprocessing , You can get native browser support , And it's more scalable , Better performance .

import { LitElement, html } from '@polymer/lit-element';
// Create your custom component
class CustomGreeting extends LitElement {
  // Declare properties
  static get properties() {
    return {
      name: { type: String }
  // Initialize properties
  constructor() {
    this.name = 'World';
  // Define a template
  render() {
    return html`<p>Hello, ${this.name}!</p>`;
// Register the element with the browser
customElements.define('custom-greeting', CustomGreeting);

Is it more familiar ?

《 The romance of The Three Kingdoms 》 There is such a sentence in it : The general trend of the world , Long period of division , A long time must be divided. . Seven nations at the weekend , Incorporated in Qin Dynasty . And after Qin's extinction , Chu 、 The division of Han Dynasty , It was incorporated into the Han Dynasty . The Han Dynasty revolted after Gaozu killed the white snake , Unify the whole country , Later Guangwu flourished , It was handed down to Emperor Xian , They were divided into three kingdoms .

Front end from 2014 Year to 2017 It was a period of scuffle , Thanks to the Node.js Auxiliary addition of , Plus a variety of front-end excellent ideas and practices , bring React/Vue/Angular A situation of tripartite confrontation . No matter what React Release V16, increase Fiber and Hooks, still Vue 3.0 Release , In fact, in the end, they are all facing the W3C WebComponents Standard walk . In a word ,Follow Standards are trends , If we can lead the standard , That would be the supreme glory of the framework .

We can refer to the technology maturity curve (Hype Cycle -Wikipedia), This curve divides technology development into five steps :

【 The driving period of the birth of science and technology 】->【 Peak of high expectations 】-> 【 Foamed bottom stage 】 -> >【 Slope of Enlightenment 】 -> 【 Plateau period of substantial production 】.

From the current heat of the front end , It should be in the third stage 【 Foamed bottom stage 】 To the fourth stage 【 Slope of Enlightenment 】 The climbing process of , Not so much innovation , Layer is more applied to content .

For the current development of the front end , I have some worries . That year Java The world used to do all kinds of things GUI, Created MVC Pattern , There was no fire , I didn't expect to Web Development field ,MVC It became the basic agreement . after Model 1 and Model 2 Such as enterprise development model gradually mature , There is StrutsSpringHibernate The three framework . For a long time after that ,Java Programmers are always saying what they say “SSH”. After that Spring A big family , Unify river's lake , I'm afraid I remember today EJB There are not many people left . Once the framework is stable , There will be a lot of training to follow up , Leading to large-scale development . This is a double-edged sword , It can meet the problems of enterprise development and recruitment , But it also puts a yoke on the field of innovation and exploration .

Application layer packaging enters into the explosion period

After the basic exploration of framework and engineering is stable , People began to think about how to better use , Easier to use . at present , Every big factory is thinking about how to select the type and reduce the cost in the front-end technology stack , Unified technology stack .

for instance Umi,Umi It's a zero configuration ( Agreement is higher than preparation ), Developed according to best practice , Front end framework out of the box : React Family bucket + dva + jest + antd (mobile) + less + eslint. As shown in the figure below :


As can be seen from the above figure ,Umi Relatively comprehensive thinking , Technology selection 、 Build to multi port output 、 performance optimization 、 Release and other aspects of the split , bring Umi The boundary is clearer , Front end best practice , At present, most front-end groups are implemented in a similar way . To put it bluntly ,Umi and create-react-appcra) similar , It is a combination of existing technology stacks , Package details , Make it easier for developers to use , Just write business code .

Zero configuration means that the default selection is done for you .

Out of the box, the technology stack is solidified .

Convention over configuration , The development model has been solidified .

Umi The core is af-webpack modular , It encapsulates the Webpack And various plug-ins , hold webpack-dev-server etc. Node.js The module is packaged directly in , At the same time, the configuration is better handled and pluggable .af-webpack The core is webpack-chain modular , Modify by chaining Webpack To configure , bring af-webpack Extremely flexible . Actually React Take the whole family bucket as an example , The biggest burden for developers is Webpack Engineering construction . About Webpack There are many packaging practices for , For example, there are also famous ones YKitEasyWebpack etc. .

YKit Where to open source Webpack, built-in Connect As Web server, combination dev and hot middleware , For multi project construction, the effect is obvious , There is a good practice for the release of version files .

EasyWebpack It's also plug-in , But for the solution 、boilerplate We have done a lot of integration , such as Egg Of SSR There is deep thinking , Although this is not the case .

in addition , stay create-react-appcra) What is used in the project react-scripts As a startup script , It and egg-scripts similar , It's also through engagement , Hide implementation details , Let developers not focus on building . some time , Similar packages will have more packages , And more inclined to the application level .

PWA Into a stable period

PWA and native app( Mobile application ) The core differences are as follows :

install :PWA Is an application that does not need to download and install .

Cache usage :native app It's mainly about sqlite cache , And file read and write operations , and PWA Very good support for caching database operations , Enough to deal with all kinds of scenarios .

Basic ability complement , For example, push .

Now? PWA It's been well supported , The only trouble is that caching policy and distribution are more troublesome , The trend of lightweight application is clear . Let's talk about PWA Some of the key points of .

1. General local storage solution Workbox

Workbox yes GoogleChrome Team launched a set of Web App Solution for storing static resources and request results locally , The solution includes some JS Libraries and build tools ,Workbox Behind it is Service Worker and Cache API Technology and standards are driving . stay Workbox Before ,GoogleChrome The team introduced... Earlier sw-precache and sw-toolbox library , But a lot of swearing , until Workbox The more perfect solution that can conveniently and uniformly handle offline capacity has been born .

Workbox It has now been published to 3.0 edition , No matter how your site is built , It can provide offline access to your site , You don't have to think about too many concrete implementations , Just do some configuration . Even if you don't think about offline capabilities , It can also make your site access faster .


Like Starbucks PWA application , Application of cache up to 41.3mb. This is a big breakthrough on the browser side , No new technology .

2.PWA The desktop version

throughout PC The development process of desktop , In the early Delphi/VB/VF/VC Etc c/s Time , Even today, there are still a lot of . The last two years , With Atom/VSCode Hot , Driven node webkit Explosion of related modules , such as NW.js and Electron etc. . adopt Web Technology to build pc client, It really saves time and effort , The user experience is also very good , Such as pinning clients 、 Graphite document client, etc , The most important thing is to unify the technology stack , For example, some algorithms , use JS Write once , Then you can go to the front end 、nodepc client And so on . Of course, the better thing is to use it Web Technology development , It doesn't need to be packed in a shell ,PWA Desktop version is such a technology .

Next, let's talk about the desktop side of 3 Stages of development .


The first stage : Native development Native

early VB/VF/VC/Delphi And so on , It came out later QT Class cross platform software , But it can still be understood as native development .

The second stage : Mix and match development Hybrid

Google in 2008 year 9 month 2 For the first time, the Chrome browser ,Node.js yes Ryan Dahl On 2009 Published in , He put the V8 engine (Chrome The core JavaScript engine ) Moved to the back end , Use js Writing server programs becomes reality . And then npm The development is extremely rapid , Cross platform technology is also advancing by leaps and bounds , There is NW.js Such a lightweight cross platform framework , be based on ChromiumChrome Open source version ) + Node.js, bring PC The desktop can pass through Web Development technology development , Finally, it is packaged and compiled into application formats supported by various platforms , to PC Desktop development brings too many possibilities .

and Atom yes GitHub stay 2014 Based on Web Technology built text editor , among atom-shell, That is to say, later Electron, Is and NW.js Similar technology . It allows the use of Node.js( As the back-end ) and Chromium( As front-end ) To complete the desktop GUI Application development .Chromium Provides the ability to render pages and respond to user interaction , and Node.js Provides access to local file systems and networks , You can also use NPM Hundreds of thousands of third-party packages on . On top of that ,Electron It also provides MacWindowsLinux Some primitives on three platforms API, For example, global shortcuts 、 File selection box 、 Tray icons and notifications 、 clipboard 、 Menu bar, etc .


Erich Gamma Designed by the old man MonacoVS Code, Also based on Electron, But the performance ratio Atom Much better .VS Code Will start a background process first , That is to say Electron The main process of , It is responsible for the lifecycle management of the editor 、 Interprocess communication 、UI Plug-in management 、 Upgrade and configuration management, etc . The background process will start a ( Or more ) Rendering Progress , Used to display the editor window , It is responsible for the entire editor UI part , Including components 、 The theme 、 Layout management and so on . Each editor window will launch a Node.JS The child process acts as the host process of the plug-in , Running plug-in logic in an independent process , And then notify by event or callback Renderer result , Avoided Renderer The rendering of is in the plug-in JS Logical blocking .

Evolution :chrome > Node.js > nw.js > atom(electron) > vs code

In the second stage , We can see PC Desktop end with Web Developing technology as the core , Take browser kernel as cross platform core , In the end Web Developed code and browser kernel package . The advantage of this is that front-end development is relatively simple , be relative to C++ And other languages are more convenient , In addition, consider from the cost , It's also very cost-effective .

Now , Many applications are based on Electron structure , For example, wechat applet IDE、 WeChat PC Version, etc , And what's really exciting is that ,2018 year 10 month 18 Japan , Xunlei forum says new edition ( From thunderbolt X 10.1 Version start ) use Electron The software framework completely rewrites the main interface of Xunlei . Use the new frame of thunderbolt X Perfect support for 2K4K Wait for HD display , The text rendering in the interface is also clearer and sharper . In terms of Technology , Interface drawing of the new framework 、 Event handling is more flexible and efficient than the old framework , Therefore, the smoothness of the interface is also significantly better than that of the old frame .


The third stage :PWA The desktop version

Wang Guowei is in 《 Human words 》 It is proposed that Separation and non separation This literary proposition , This problem also exists in the field of development . Obviously Web Developed , Why pack and shell ? Except for its very large size , It is also very troublesome to use and install .

Spotify Of PWA The desktop app experience is great , stay mac It's silky and smooth .


2018 year Google IO At the conference , Microsoft announces Win10 Embrace... With all your strength PWA, To crawl through PWA page , And convert it to Appx, And then offer apps in its app store , Experience and original Native The applications are very similar , I'm very optimistic about that .


The browser has a super cache capability , Plus PWA Other features , Make the PWA Applications can be comparable Native Application performance . You can open it directly in the browser , No need to shell , Obviously, this is extremely convenient .

PWA It is bound to change the pattern between the front end and the mobile end , Plus AOT(ahead-of-time) And WebAssembly by JS Performance breakthrough ,JavaScript It will shake all fields , From the mobile end (PWA) To desktop applications 、 The Internet of things 、VRAR、 Games and even artificial intelligence .

Google It will be vigorously promoted next PWA The desktop version of , Plus Win10 and Chrome The blessing ,Web Applications can achieve a near native experience without adding a shell , Once again, the frontend has been broadened , The future can really think boldly .

Many people ask PWA Why don't you feel hot at home , The reason is simple ,PWA Excellent performance in weak network environment , But China's network is the best in the world , therefore PWA In fact, it didn't bring us so much benefit . However, it is also very good as a filling scheme , After all 2G/3G It's a little bit more , In addition, it is rendered on the server SSR On ,PWA Can also play a very good effect .

Small programs are popular

If you say and PWA More like it , It's probably a small program , Applets are also the hottest technology of the year .


Next step plan of wechat applet , Support NPM、 Applet cloud 、 Visual programming 、 Support subcontracting, etc , It sounds beautiful , But there are still many pits . Applet is provided natively DSL It's not easy to use , So there's an upper development framework or scaffolding to optimize development efficiency , At present, the mainstream ones are 3 individual :


This year, there are also headlines outside the wechat app 、 Alipay applet 、 Baidu smart applet, etc , There will be a lot more in the future . meanwhile , Mobile phone manufacturers are probably seeing the threat of applets to their app stores , millet 、 Huawei 、OPPOvivo And so on, nine domestic mobile phone manufacturers joined hands to establish Fast application Alliance , be based on react-native Technology stack , It's also very good overall , In particular, tmall calls the rookie wrapping fast application , Android has a very good experience . By contrast , Wechat is based on Webview Of , The fast app uses a native rendering scheme , It's pretty much the same with other families .

Actually 5G The time will soon come , You can think about it , At network speed 、 Memory and CPU At a higher level ,5G Maximum download speed per second up to 1.4G, Second PWA Or applet application , Is it offline , Or online , I don't know .

There's so much that the front end can talk about , But limited by space , This article can only be briefly shared with you React/Vue/Angular Standardization of the three frameworks 、 Application layer packaging enters into the explosion period 、PWA Into a stable period 、 Small program hot and other aspects of the content . In the next article , I will continue to talk to you about the mobile terminal situation 、 The inevitability of multi-end alignment and so on , as well as 2019 Years can't be ignored TypeScript and WebAssembly These two technologies , Welcome to continue to pay attention , Also welcome to leave a message to communicate with me .

Multi end alignment , Pay attention to user experience

stay AI Time , No, End Is that ok ? Obviously not . First of all, thanks to apple , Take the user experience to an unprecedented position . After the rise of mobile Internet ,PC Web Declining . I personally appreciate Yubo very much , Wireless in those days ALL IN Strategy , He still chose to stay and continue PC Web The front end of the . however , Although many companies are focusing on Wireless , but PC Business has never stopped , This is the status quo of many companies , It's also an objective fact . that ,PC It's like this Antique Where is the way out ?

We can use PC/H5 Advantages of fast release , Quick verification AI Algorithm , Then provide better model and data support for mobile end .

Multi ended alignment , Good combination boxing . Since there can't be a bigger breakthrough on the mobile end , We can only work hard on the details .

Everyone's battlefield is no longer on the spot , It has been upgraded to the stage of playing combination strategy . The future is bound to be multi-faceted , Pay attention to user experience .

Today's big front end , except Web Outside , It also includes various terminals , For example, mobile terminal 、OTT, Even some new IOT devices . We have reason to believe that Chrome OS Vision of the year : Give me a browser , I can give you a world . If it's a little more subtle : Give me a Webview, I can give you a world .


I've been very concerned before TypeScript, But he has not made up his mind to land in the team . This year, 1 In Beijing Node Party It's a game , I had a chat with some guests , It was confirmed that the effect was very obvious , It is not difficult to land , It is agreed that 2019 year TypeScript There will be very big growth . The front-end team becomes larger , Large scale programming must also rely on type systems and object-oriented , From this point of view ,TypeScript It was also a triumph .

Here is a brief introduction to TypeScript, It is type defined JavaScript Superset , Include ES5ES5+ And other things like reflection 、 Generic 、 The type definition 、 A collection of features such as a namespace , For large scale JavaScript Born from application development . Complex software requires complex design , Object oriented is a good way to design , Use TypeScript One of the great benefits of TypeScript Provides industry recognized classes ( ES5+ Also support )、 Generic 、 encapsulation 、 Interface object oriented design capability , To improve JavaScript Object oriented design capability of . The framework on the market is also right TypeScript Very good support .

React Yes .tsx Support is very good , For example, I am in Midway controller In the support tsx How to write it , This is very bold , For the back react ssr It's a great convenience ;Vue from v2.5.0 And then to ts Support is very good ;Node.js Web frame , In especial Egg.js Yes ts Support is very good , Of course, there are more advanced, more focused Midway frame ,Midway be based on Egg ecology , At the same time provide IoC Advanced play ;

In the use of Webpack Compiling front end application , adopt TypeScript-loader You can easily TypeScript Introduced to the Webpack in . With TypeScript-loader, You can use it at the same time TypeScript Write new code , Update old code piecemeal . After all ts yes js Superset , Change it when you have time , optional , Particularly inclusive .


WebAssembly Is a new bytecode format , At present, the mainstream browsers all support WebAssembly. and JS It needs to be explained that the difference in execution is ,WebAssembly Bytecode is very similar to the underlying machine code , It can load and run quickly , So the performance is relative to JS There has been a huge improvement in the interpretation of execution . in other words WebAssembly It's not a programming language , It's a bytecode standard , We need to compile bytecode in advanced programming language and put it in WebAssembly Virtual machine to run , What the browser manufacturer needs to do is based on WebAssembly Standardize the implementation of virtual machine . It's very much like Java early Applet, Be able to run other languages in browsers .Applet It's a kind of Java Program , It can run in support Java Of Web In browser . Because it's complete Java API Support , therefore Applet It's a full-featured Java Applications .

With WebAssembly, You can run any language on the browser . from Coffee To TypeScript, To Babel, All these need to be translated into js To be carried out , and WebAssembly It's embedded in the browser vm, Direct execution , There is no need to translate , Execution efficiency is naturally much higher .

for instance ,AutoCAD The software is developed by Autodesk Inc (Autodesk) An automatic computer-aided design software , It can be used to draw two-dimensional drawings and basic three-dimensional design . When using it , No need to know how to program , It can automatically draw , So it's widely used in civil construction all over the world 、 Decoration 、 Industrial drawing 、 Engineering drawing 、 electronics industry 、 Clothing processing and many other fields .

AutoCAD It's made up of a lot of C++ Code the software , There have been a lot of technological changes , From desktop to mobile to web. Before ,InfoQ There was a speech on , The title is 《AutoCAD & WebAssembly: Moving a 30 Year Code Base to the Web》, That is, through WebAssembly, Let a lot of old C++ Code in Web Can run on , And ensure the efficiency of implementation .

Originally , I thought WebAssembly It's far away from us , But in 2018 year Google I/O The meeting witnessed AutoCad Web After the application , Very shocking , The effect is shown below .

Can make such a huge project run in Web End , It's really amazing . adopt WebAssembly technology , Can reuse the previous C++ Code , It can be done again Web turn , This may be called the best of both worlds .

Before , Zhao Yang, the front-end R & D Manager of national live broadcast, once shared WebAssembly In the national live broadcast of the application of live encoding and decoding , The effect is also very good .

in addition , Xu Shiwei is here ECUG Con 2018 I also shared one on Topic, The theme is 《 We can talk Go Application prospect of language in front end 》,Go The development of China has also encountered a bottleneck , There is no way to focus on back-end development Go Top of the list , One of the current directions is to use the GopherJS, take Go Code compiled as JS. There is no problem with this practice , and Kotlin similar , For most of them Go The users are also very good . But the problem is , A real front end is unlikely to change languages , Current company Babelts This kind of heart tired , What's more, switch to Go. Please don't update it , I can't learn , This is the voice of most front-end engineers .

from WebAssembly From the current situation , For the time-consuming part of the complex calculation, other languages are used to implement , It's really a better way . From the trend ,WebAssembly Let all languages run on browsers , It's on the browser vm, Isn't the browser the operating system ?

Chrome At the heart of JavaScript engine V8 At present, it includes Liftoff This new model WebAssembly baseline compiler .Liftoff Simple and fast code generators greatly improve WebAssembly Application startup speed . But on the desktop ,V8 Will still pass the TurboFan The way to recompile code in the background ultimately leads to the peak performance of the code .

at present ,V8 v6.9 (Chrome 69) Medium Liftoff Has been set to the default working state , It can also be explicitly passed through --liftoff/--no-liftoff perhaps chrome://flags/#enable-webassembly-baseline Switch to control . in addition ,Node.js v11 Adopted v8 Engine v7 edition , Yes WebAssembly Support better , It doesn't make sense , But it's good to practice .


Flutter yes Google Launched to help developers in Android and iOS Two platforms , At the same time, develop new mobile applications with high quality UI frame , and React-native/Weex Hot update is also supported .Flutter Use Google Our home Dart Language writing , Just this year Dart 2 Also officially released , I don't know if there's a connection between the two . at present Dart Focus on Flutter and Web Two pieces of , It also provides pub Package manager , It's like a new language , The cost of learning is a little high . take the reverse into consideration TypeScript It's very easy to accept , be based on npm ecology , compatible ES grammar , therefore ,2019 Years of Dart I will still take a wait-and-see attitude .

Except I don't like it Dart Outside ,Flutter Everything else is very good , Under the background of strong operation of mobile terminal now , Support for hot updates is a necessary capability .

About Weex, Scold and use at the same time , A state of helplessness .Weex It's a good thing , Donated it to Apache, It's hatching now , There will be a good future . But the community is poorly maintained , problem issue Not in time , Document not updated . If the company does not have a schema group , It's still hard to handle .

But there are many good examples , such as 2018 Youku's double 11 campaign is to use Weex Developed , The effect is very good . Build a platform through self built visualization activities , Can be very efficient to complete the development , combination App Cache within , Overall effect ratio H5 Much better .


I am right. Weex The view is that , before Weex It's just a solution H5 The problem of rendering efficiency , But now the background of strong operation , bring Weex A lot of content , Like animation 、 Games, even graphics and image processing . You can see , future Weex It will increase strategically .


Source of contribution : Alicloud developer community



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  58. 【重识 HTML (4),ELK原来这么简单
  59. [re recognize HTML, nginx interview questions]
  60. [re recognize HTML (4). Elk is so simple