Nginx detailed location matching rules

Bobo roast duck 2020-11-13 05:00:12
nginx detailed location matching rules


In this paper, we will give you a detailed introduction to Nginx In the core configuration file Location Matching rules .
location Will try to use the URI To match the above /uri expression , If it can match , Just choose location{} Block to handle user requests . Of course , There are many ways to match ,
Let's introduce location Matching rules of .
grammar :

location [=|~|~*] /uri/ {
}

~ # The wavy line means performing a regular match , Case sensitive
~* # Means to perform a regular match , Case insensitive
= # Make exact matching of common characters

URI Matching mode

location There are two matching patterns
1. Ordinary string matching : With = Start with or without a regular guide sign (~) The rules
2. Regular matching : With () The beginning or (*) The beginning represents a regular match

Normal matching pattern

location / {

root html;
index index.html index.htm;
}
location /demo {

root html;
index demo.html;
}

1. Configure two location, The first is to match the root path ”/”, The other is matching “/demo” route
2. stay html Create one in the directory demo Catalog , because /demo It is equivalent to a virtual host directory , The final address you visit will become /demo/demo.html
3. Reload the configuration file ’./nginx -s reload’
4. By typing http://localhost/ as well as http://localhost/demo You can see that we have access to the corresponding path

Matching rules :
location It's not a strict match , It is a “ Prefix matching ” The process , So in the case above , Two location Can match , But normal matching follows a longest matching rule , In the above request , Final uri Will match to the maximum length location. That is to say /demo

Precise matching patterns

In the normal matching pattern , It can also be subdivided into a precise matching pattern , That is, through the equal sign to match directly

location =/demo {

root html;
index gp.html;
}
location /demo {

root html;
index demo.html;
}

Let's continue to add an example based on location =/demo Matching rules of , Then the matching at this time is precise matching . What's the difference between precise matching and normal matching ? And what the matching order looks like ?
http://localhost/demo √
http://localhost/demo/demo.html √
http://localhost/demo/gp.html √ ( Precise matching )
But it doesn't prove that it's an exact match here

#location =/demo {

# root html; 
# index gp.html;
#}
location /demo {

root html;
index demo.html;
}

Comment out the exact match
http://localhost/demo √
http://localhost/demo/demo.html √
http://localhost/demo/gp.html √ ( Normal match )

location =/demo {

root html;
index gp.html;
}
#location /demo {

# root html;
# index demo.html;
#}

We annotate the normal match and find that :
http://localhost/demo ×
http://localhost/demo/demo.html √
http://localhost/demo/gp.html √
The first way is not accessible . But it doesn't prove that precise matching has a higher priority than normal matching , In this case, we can set it like this

location =/index.html {
 # Precise matching 
root html/gp1;
index index.html;
}
location /index.html {
 # Normal match 
root html/gp2;
index index.html;
}

Then we will visit
 Insert picture description here
What I visited was gp1 In the directory , That means normal matching doesn't work .

Regular match pattern

Regular matching will also be used more in practical applications , For example, let's show you a case based on regular matching

location ~* \.(jpg|png|css|js|gif)$ {

root html/images;
}

And then we were in html Create under directory images Folder , Put a picture in it .Reload nginx After service , visit

 Insert picture description here

What is the priority of regular matching in the three matching patterns ? We talked about general matching , Finally, the largest prefix match will be chosen . But matching doesn't stop matching , The maximum match is just a temporary result ,nginx You also need to continue checking for regularities location. So what are regular matching rules like ? According to regularity location Match the physical order in the configuration file . If it matches a regular location, I don't think about the rules behind

Matching priority

  1. First of all, see if there is a precise match , If there is , Stop the matching process
  2. Judge normal hit , If there are multiple hits ,“ Record ” The longest hit result ( Record but not end )
  3. Continue to judge regular expressions , Follow the order of regular expressions in the configuration , Match from top to bottom , Once a match is made , Immediately return the result and end
    a) Normal hit , The order is irrelevant , Because it's determined by the length of the hit
    b) Regular hit , The order matters , Because it's from the past to the back

 Insert picture description here

Suggestions for practical use

So in practice , There are at least three matching rule definitions
Matches the site root directly , It is more frequent to visit the homepage of the website through domain name , Using this will speed things up
This is forwarded directly to the backend application server , It can also be a static home page
The first mandatory rule

location =/ {

proxy_pass http://tomcat:8080/index
}

The second required rule is to process static file requests , This is a nginx As http Server strengths
There are two configuration modes , Directory matching or suffix matching , Choose one or both

location ^~ /static/ {

root /webroot/static/;
}
location ~* \.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|css|js|ico)$ {

root /webroot/res/;
}

The third rule is the general rule , Used to forward dynamic requests to backend application servers
Non static file requests are dynamic by default , Oneself according to actual control

location / {

proxy_pass http://tomcat:8080/
}
版权声明
本文为[Bobo roast duck]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢

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