AgI: life, consciousness, five elements, Yi Jing and quantum

A Virgo procedural ape 2020-11-13 05:48:34
agi life consciousness elements yi


AGI: Towards general artificial intelligence 【 Life Science & philosophy & science 】 Chapter one —— life 、 consciousness 、 Five elements 、 The book of changes 、 quantum

Reading guide
The physics of atoms is unified , The physics of quantum is unified in quantum , Chemistry is unified on the elements , And life is united in DNA On ,DNA It's taken apart , It's just a bunch of elements , According to the combination of classical physics and quantum physics .
Science is essentially an empirical epistemology , It belongs to a branch of philosophy . Quantum Theory , Through the language of Philosophy , Quantum belongs to metaphysics, can't see 、 Something untouchable . The basic five elements of vitality , It is the way in which all things in the world are formed and evolved .
The essence of life is chemistry , The essence of chemistry is physics , The nature of physics is described mathematically , The essence of mathematics is written in one of our languages .
Schrodinger's 《 What is life 》 Pointed out that , Life is a process of negative entropy , All things belong to nothingness , Work hard all the time . Through the ordering of macromolecules , To overcome the disorder of small molecules and atoms , One of the systems is life .

 

Catalog

life

1、 About 《 What is life 》

Five elements

1、 Origin of five elements

2、 Five elements of yin and Yang VS  Quantum Theory

The book of changes

0、 The pronunciation of difficult words in the book of changes

1、 What is the book of changes ?

2、 What is the core of the book of changes ?

3、 The expression of the book of changes is eight trigrams , And the eight trigrams extend to 64 hexagrams

4、 What is the function of the book of changes ?

5、 What is the principle of syndrome differentiation in the book of changes ?

Quantum Theory

1、 The concept of quantum theory

2、 The history of quantum theory

3、 Quantum theory influences

4、 What is quantum theory ?

5、 The explanation of quantum theory

6、 quantum mechanics VS Classical mechanics

High definition group photo of the most luxurious party in Physics


 

 

 

Related articles
AGI: Towards general artificial intelligence 【 Life Science & philosophy & science 】 Chapter one —— life 、 consciousness 、 Five elements 、 The book of changes 、 quantum
AGI: Towards general artificial intelligence 【 Life Science & philosophy & science 】 Second articles —— thinking 、 Life science 、 The objective world

 

life

        Schrodinger's 《 What is life 》 Pointed out that , Life is a process of negative entropy , All things belong to nothingness , Work hard all the time . Through the ordering of macromolecules , To overcome the disorder of small molecules and atoms , One of the systems is life .
        In the seventy s , Number theory is also a discrete system ( There is a range of ). The essence of life is chemistry , The essence of chemistry is physics , The nature of physics is described mathematically , The essence of mathematics is written in one of our languages .

1、 About 《 What is life 》

        Nobel laureate 、 The Austrian physicist Schr? Dinger in his 1944 The book of 《 What is life ?》(What Is Life? ) in , It raises a more specific but as thought-provoking question as the title of the book :“ What makes life systems seem to contradict known laws of physics ?” Schr? Dinger's answer at the time now seems predictable . He pointed out that , The characteristic of life is “ Cipher book ”, This codebook not only guides cell organization and genetics , It can also get the organism out of the second law of Thermodynamics .
       In this book , Schrodinger proposed the concept of life code and negative entropy of life process , The importance of studying life phenomena with physical and chemical methods is emphasized . The book turned out to be a collection of popular science lectures , I didn't expect this book for non experts , It turns out to be a discovery DNA And led to the birth of key works in molecular biology . His ideas influenced a generation of biologists , It is a pioneer in information biology research , Yes 20 The biological revolution of the 20th century has played an immeasurable role . Schrodinger leads readers to explore the daunting theme of life with a relaxing and pleasant style , The content is profound and interesting , Extremely Inspired by the theory of life, hope For our readers , This book is undoubtedly one of the best choices .
         Schrodinger's idea of entropy balance of life can be regarded as the study of biological privilege , Like copying 、 memory 、 aging 、 Epigenetic modification and self-regulation , How to be understood as a pioneer of the non-equilibrium complexity process of the environment that cannot be ignored . What's interesting is , Similar considerations of environment and contingency are now considered to be at the heart of quantum mechanics , His thought is entanglement 、 Decoherence and context . Is this not just a coincidence , We can't say .                                                         ---- Transfer from network

 

Five elements

1、 Origin of five elements

          Yin and Yang originate from The book of changes , And the five elements come from Gossip , It's all based on river charts .
          Five elements is a systematic view of ancient Chinese Taoist philosophy , It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine 、 Canyu 、 Destiny 、 Physiognomy and divination . The meaning of the five elements includes five basic dynamics in the evolution of yin and Yang : water ( It's for moistening )、 fire ( On behalf of Yan Shang )、 gold ( For convergence )、 wood ( It's for stretching )、 soil ( For neutralization ). Ancient Chinese philosophers The theory of five elements explains the formation of all things in the world and their relationship . It emphasizes the whole , The purpose of this paper is to describe the movement form of things and the transformation relationship . Yin Yang is the ancient theory of unity of opposites , The five elements are the original system theory .

                                                       Five elements live together : wood → fire → soil → gold → water
                                                       The five elements are mutually exclusive : gold → wood → soil → water → fire
          Mutual generation , It refers to the mutual help between two kinds of things with different properties , Mutually reinforcing relationship ; The concrete is : Wood makes fire , Fire makes earth , Native gold , Jinsheng water , Aquatic wood .
          Xiangke , It's the opposite of birth , It refers to the mutual restraint between two kinds of things with different five elements attribute ; The concrete is : Wood and earth , Turk water , Water conquers fire 、 Pyrogen 、 Jinkemu .

2、 Five elements of yin and Yang VS  Quantum Theory

      Quantum Theory , Only through the language of Philosophy , Quantum belongs to metaphysics, can't see 、 Something untouchable . The basic five elements of vitality , The way things in the world are formed and evolved .

 

 

The book of changes

         《 The book of changes 》 finger 《 Lianshan 》、《 Go home 》、《 Zhouyi 》 Three Yi Shu . among 《 Lianshan 》 and 《 Go home 》 It has been lost , The only thing that exists in the world is 《 Zhouyi 》. essentially ,《 The book of changes 》 It's a book about change , It is a broad and profound book of dialectics philosophy .《 The book of changes 》 Known as the “ The first of all the classics, the source of the road ”, It is the general program of Chinese traditional culture , It contains the profound law of nature , It is the crystallization of the wisdom of the Chinese nation for thousands of years .
        《 The book of changes 》 It has been used for a long time “ Divination ”.“ Divination ” Namely Predict the future development of events , and 《 The book of changes 》 It's a book that summarizes the laws of these predictions .《 The book of changes 》 There's a lot to be said about , Discipline and ethics , It is an outstanding representative of Chinese culture ; Vast and delicate , Cover and contain everything , It is also the source of Chinese civilization . Its content involves philosophy 、 Politics 、 life 、 literature 、 art 、 Science and so on , It is the head of the group of sutras , confucian 、 The common classics of Taoism .

0、 The pronunciation of difficult words in the book of changes

  • Oh : The sound yáo ,2 The sound . The length and length of each hexagram in the eight trigrams : The elephant .
  • To exchange : The sound dui,4 The sound . The joy of divination can be seen , Happiness shines on people .
  • I don't know : The sound guai,4 The sound . It must be , Just decided the mulberry also .
  • You know : The sound tuan,4 The sound . The original meaning is “ Pigs run away ”. Zhuan is the character of Cong sound .
  • Zhen : That is to say ,“ Zhen ” It's a verb , The meaning of divination is ,“ auspicious ” Auspicious is the adjective auspicious .
  • Divination : The sound shì. Good luck or bad luck , If the divination is short, the turtle is long .



1、 What is the book of changes ?

  • (1)、 Strictly speaking, 《 The book of changes 》 and 《 Easy to pass on 》 Constitute the 《 Zhouyi 》; and 《 Zhouyi 》、《 Lianshan 》、《 Go home 》 It's made up of 《 Sanyi 》.《 Lianshan 》 It's the learning of the book of changes in the Xia Dynasty ,《 Go home 》 It's the Yi ology of the Yin Dynasty ,《 Zhouyi 》 It's the book of changes of the Zhou Dynasty . unfortunately ,《 Lianshan 》、《 Go home 》 It has been lost .
  • (2)、《 The book of changes 》 It is also called the original Sutra , abbreviation 《 easy 》, The book was completed from the beginning of the Western Zhou Dynasty to the late Zhou Dynasty , About 3000 years ago .《 The book of changes 》 from The words of divination and divination are composed of . There are 64 hexagrams , There are six hexagrams in each hexagram , A total of 384 . and 《 Easy to pass on 》 There are ten wings : On the top of 、 Next 、 On the elephant 、 Like 、 Classical Chinese 、 On the tie line 、 Copula II 、 Talk about divination 、 Prologue hexagram 、 Ten miscellaneous hexagrams .《 Easy to pass on 》 The book was completed from the spring and Autumn period to the mid Warring States period , The annotation of the book of changes is to play a role .
  • (3)、 According to the historians 《 Zhouyi 》 For Fuxi 、 King Wen 、 Zhou Gong 、 The four sages of Confucius co authored , That is, Fuxi painted eight trigrams , King Wen made divination , Zhou Gong wrote a poem , Confucius wrote 《 Easy to pass on 》.

 

2、 What is the core of the book of changes ?

          The core of the book of changes is the famous “ Three changes theory ”, namely : Simple and easy 、 change 、 Not easy to .

  • (1)、 Simple and easy : It refers to the complexity and profundity of things in the world , Once human intelligence reaches , They can be transformed into problems that people can easily understand and deal with .
  • (2)、 change : It means that everything in the world is changing and developing all the time , Nothing remains the same , If you leave this change , Everything in the universe is hard to form .
  • (3)、 Not easy to : It refers to the premise that everything changes in the universe , There's only one thing that doesn't change , It's the thing that can make all kinds of things unchanged ; That is to say, the law that everything changes is unchangeable .

          So-called " Not easy to ", It's the basic balance ;" change " It's development and change , It's just imbalance ;" Simple and easy " All the most complex things in the world can be summed up in the simplest symbols . Development and change 、 The imbalance is absolute 、 Eternal , Balance is relative 、 Temporary .

 

3、 The expression of the book of changes is eight trigrams , And the eight trigrams extend to 64 hexagrams

  • (1)、 Bagua is made up of : Dry 、 To exchange 、 leave 、 earthquake 、 Sunda 、 Ridge 、 Gen 、 The eight single trigrams of Kun consist of . If you know the eight trigrams, you can come up with 64 hexagrams .   Dry : God ; Kun : The earth ; To exchange : water ; leave : fire ; earthquake : Thunder ; Ridge : water ; Gen : mountain ; Sunda : wind .
  • (2)、 stay 《 The book of changes 》 In the scripture , use "-" It means Yang Yang , use "--" It means Yin . Yin and Yang constitute the hexagram .  
  • (3)、 specifically , Each hexagram has six hexagrams , Or it is composed of three yang or three yin ; Or one Yin and two Yang ; Or it is composed of one Yang and two Yin . Eight trigrams are eight single trigrams . Then eight single hexagrams coincide with each other , Form 64 hexagrams .
  • (4)、“ It's easy to have Taiji , It's birth and death , Liangyi produces four images , Four elephants make eight trigrams ”. The change of yin and Yang begins with Tai Chi , Taiji produces Yin and Yang . There is Yin and Yang , To induce mutual induction , Yang nourishes Yin , Yin contains Yang , So there is Yang in Yin , There is Yin in the Yang , So Yin Yang and Qi , It is divided into four parts , It's called the four elephants . The four elephants now generally refer to Shaoyang 、 Lao Yang 、 Shaoyin 、 Old Yin .

 

4、 What is the function of the book of changes ?

          The book of changes is the philosophy and experience summed up by Chinese Confucianists for thousands of years , It covers a wide range of subjects , Almost all knowledge is included An encyclopedia . The book of changes has brought three golden keys to mankind .

  • (1)、 The first gold key is “ yin-yang ”, Everything in the world is in harmony with the balance of yin and Yang , Harmony leads to development and progress .
  • (2)、 The second key is “ Five elements ”, Everything is inseparable from the figure of the five elements , Geomantic omen's Neo Confucianism and Wei Neo Confucianism all start from it .
  • (3)、 The third golden key is “ Gossip ”, From the eight trigrams to “ Sixty four hexagrams of King Wen ”. He told us the 64 codes of the universe , The whole world can't escape this secret .

 

5、 What is the principle of syndrome differentiation in the book of changes ?

     " easy , If you are poor, you will change , Change makes sense , The general rule is long ." This is a 《 A conjunction 》 As mentioned in , It's also 《 The book of changes 》 One of the most important principles of syndrome differentiation in : Change leads to a long time .

  • (1)、 The law of the heavenly way :[ Only change is suitable ]. If things change, there will always be , There's always a change .《 The book of changes 》 It's just like this [ unsettled ] in 、 Shows [ Always lasts ] The invariable law of , It's like this again “ Always lasts ” in 、 It shows “ Only change is suitable ” The variable law of . This law is called [ Skywalk ], That is, the law of the heavenly way .
  • (2)、 The change of things follows the law of heaven . Everything in the world is changing , Only the law of heaven itself remains unchanged , So the change of things must follow the law of the heavenly way .
  • (3)、 therefore 《 The book of changes 》 Since everything in the world is changing , Only the law of heaven itself remains unchanged , Then one should follow the way of heaven , It's not against the weather , Change with time , So that it can last for a long time .
  • (4)、《 The book of changes 》 Two concepts that guide human behavior , namely [ when ] And [ in ]: in ] The golden mean : Running in the middle of the way of nature , Not too much , It's not as bad as .[ when ] In keeping with the times : In other words, harmony 、 Keep pace with the times .



 

 

Quantum Theory

1、 Quantum Theory Concept

          quantum (quantum) yes Modern physics An important concept of . The first is the Germany physical scientist M· The Planck stay 1900 Put forward in . He assumes that Blackbody radiation Medium Radiant energy It's not continuous , Only energy Basic unit Of Integers times , The experimental phenomena of blackbody radiation are well explained .
          Later research shows that , Not only does energy exhibit this discontinuous dissociation property , other physical quantity Such as angular momentum The spin 、 The charge and so on all show this kind of discontinuity Quantization The phenomenon . This is the same as Newtonian mechanics As a representative of the Classical physics There is a fundamental difference . Quantization is mainly manifested in Microcosmic The physical world . The physical theory that describes the microscopic physical world is quantum mechanics .
          The word quantum comes from Latin quantus, Meaning for “ How many? ”, representative “ A considerable amount of something ”. Since Planck put forward the concept of quantum , the Einstein Bohr 、 De Broglie 、 Heisenberg 、 schrodinger 、 Dirac 、 The perfection of born and others , stay 20 The first half of the century , A complete theory of quantum mechanics has been established preliminarily . Most physicists will quantum mechanics As the basic theory of understanding and describing nature .

 

2、 The history of quantum theory

          In classical physics , According to the equipartition theorem of energy : Energy is continuously changing , You can take any value .19 In the late 20th century , Scientists have found that many physical phenomena cannot be explained by classical theory . At that time, German Physics focused on the study of blackbody radiation .1900 About years ago ,M· Planck tried to solve the problem of blackbody radiation , He boldly proposed the Quantum Hypothesis , And the Planck radiation law is obtained , Still in use today . Planck proposed : As atoms are the constituent units of all matter ,“ Energon ”( quantum ) It's the smallest unit of energy . Objects absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation , It can only be done in a quantum way . Planck is in 1900 year 12 month 14 Energy quantization was first presented at the meeting of the German Society of physics in Japan 、 A molecular mole (mol) And the basic charge . Its value is more accurate than before , The proposed theory has also successfully solved the problem of blackbody radiation , It marks the birth of quantum mechanics .
         1905 year , The German physicist Einstein introduced the concept of quantum into the process of light propagation , Put forward “ The quantum of light ”( The photon ) The concept of , It is proposed that light has both wave and particle properties , That is, light “ Wave particle duality ”.
         20 century 20 years , French physicist de Broglie proposed “ Matter waves ” Concept , That is, all matter particles have wave particle duality ; German physicist Heisenberg and others established quantum matrix mechanics ; The Austrian physicist Schrodinger established quantum wave dynamics . The development of quantum theory has entered the stage of quantum mechanics .
         1928 year , Dirac, a British physicist, completed the proof of mathematical equivalence between matrix mechanics and wave dynamics , The theory of quantum mechanics is summarized systematically , And the two theoretical systems —— Relativity and quantum mechanics have been successfully combined , This is the prelude to quantum field theory . Quantum theory is one of the two cornerstones of modern physics , Understanding macro phenomena from the micro level provides a theoretical basis .

 

3、 Quantum Theory influence

          The proposal of quantum hypothesis strongly impact Classical physics , Promote physics to the micro level , Foundation laying Modern physics . But until now , Some of the physicists' hypotheses about quantum mechanics are still not fully proved , There is still a lot to study .
          The physics of atoms is unified , The physics of quantum is unified in quantum , Chemistry is unified on the elements , And life is united in DNA On ,DNA It's taken apart , It's just a bunch of elements , According to the combination of classical physics and quantum physics .

 

4、 What is quantum theory ?

          After thousands of years of debate , Now we finally know , Matter is made up of electrons 、 It's made up of microscopic particles like quarks . These little guys come together like Lego blocks , It forms atoms and molecules , And atoms and molecules make up the macro world “ Lego blocks ”.
          To describe The micro world How it works , Scientists have developed a theory called quantum mechanics . The prediction made by this theory is very strange ( for example , Particles can appear in two places at the same time ), But it's the most accurate theory in physics right now , It has withstood rigorous tests in the past hundred years . There's no quantum theory , A lot of technology around us , Including chips in computers and smartphones , It's unimaginable .
          Quantum theory is weird , But its correctness is beyond doubt . What scientists are arguing about , just How to explain it .

 

5、 The explanation of quantum theory

  • The explanation of Copenhagen School : Before we measure , There is no definite reality . Only the moment we observe , The behavior of observation leads to the wave function “ Collapse ”, A certain reality is presented . The Copenhagen interpretation can be summed up in three cores : Born's probabilistic explanation 、 Heisenberg's uncertainty principle 、 Bohr's principle of complementarity . Together, these three core principles destroy our understanding of the world : Together, the first two destroy the causality of the classical world , The latter two destroy the objectivity of the world .
     

    (1)、 To understand the Copenhagen interpretation with a simple coin phenomenon         
             The state of a coin in general , We think it's either positive , Either it's the opposite , It's very clear . however , There is a situation , Its state is not clear , This is when it's in When spinning , We don't know if it's positive or negative . We think it's a quantum state ( We use coins instead of particles , In fact, in the macro world, this is not a quantum state ). At this time , You can use a Wave function to describe its state , also This wave function is used to describe the probability of the front and back of a coin when it is rotated .
              however , When we want to measure whether it's positive or negative , We have to Press the coin down , This destroys the quantum state in which the coin is spinning , That is to say Its wave function collapses . And when the coin is spinning , The coin is in a superposition of the front and the back , In other words, it is positive , It shows the opposite , It's just like quantum behaves like a wave and a particle .

  • Multi world interpretation : Every quantum measurement will trigger the birth of countless parallel universes , Every possibility in the superposition state , Separation becomes a reality in every new universe . The reason you observed Schrodinger's cat was alive , Just because of this “ you ” Happened to be in the same new universe as the living cat .
  • De Broglie's guided wave interpretation : Microscopic particles behave like classical particles , It's just that you have to think of them as surfers riding on so-called guided waves . Particles produce waves , And they guide the waves , So again and again .

 

6、 quantum mechanics VS Classical mechanics

          Tell the truth , Rule what we know “ classic ” The rules of the world basically fail in the micro world . Only a few have survived , Like conservation of energy 、 Charge conservation and so on .
         “ classic ” It's used by physicists to describe “ Everyday feeling ” The term of —— When things don't behave beyond your daily experience , Let's just say it's “ classic ” Of . But that doesn't mean , The laws of the micro and macro worlds are complete “ Never see each other again ”. As laws of Physics , Quantum laws are undoubtedly more fundamental , But when a lot of particles come together , Its overall behavior is very similar to the behavior of classical objects , Then you can use the classical law to describe .

 

 

High definition group photo of the most luxurious party in Physics

Sent 1927 Group photo of the fifth Solvay conference in , High definition group photo of the most luxurious party in Physics

 

 

 

 

Reference article
schrodinger 《 What is life ?》 published 75 anniversary
Quantum theory that everybody can understand  
Nine questions tell you ,《 The book of changes 》 What to say ?

 

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