Nginx implements reverse proxy and load balancing

Alan.hsiang 2021-06-18 03:15:17
nginx implements reverse proxy load

Nginx The agent function and load balancing function of are the most commonly used , This paper mainly introduces the agent , Reverse proxy , Knowledge points related to load balancing , And use Nginx Implementation of reverse proxy and load balancing operation steps , For learning and sharing only , If there are shortcomings , Also please correct me .

What is agency ?

such as , At home, due to the national conditions , Google website blocked , cannot access , You need to set up a proxy server to access , The proxy server resolves the client request , Send it to the server , And receive the information from the server , And then back to the client . In the process , The server doesn't know which client is , Only communicate with the proxy server , In order to achieve the purpose of hiding the identity of the client . Another example , When outside the company , Need access to the company intranet , You have to go through VPN Connect ,VPN It is also a kind of proxy server . The proxy diagram is as follows :

What is reverse proxy ?

For high access systems , A server is unable to meet the performance requirements , Usually, multiple servers will be deployed to meet the actual needs , Such as : Baidu , Big search engines like Google . This is the time , A portal is usually set up to distribute different requests to each server . In fact, users don't know which server they are visiting , This is a good way to hide the server , It also reduces the risk of server exposure . In the process , Server acting as access gateway , It's the reverse proxy server , The schematic diagram is as follows :

The difference between forward agent and reverse agent : The proxy server is on the client side , Or the server . To hide the client , Or to hide the server .

What is load balancing ?

In the actual project server deployment process , Some servers have good performance , Some servers have poor performance , If all access is equal , Some servers will be overburdened , Some servers will waste resources , So the purpose of load balancing is to make the best use of every resource .Nginx The built-in load balancing policy provided is polling , Weighted polling ,Ip hash Three , The following three load balancing strategies are introduced respectively .

Polling is the default load balancing policy , Every service resource has equal opportunities to be allocated , The schematic diagram is shown below :

Weighted polling , And according to special needs , Each resource is weighted differently ( percentage ) Be allocated to use , In order to achieve the goal of rational utilization of resources , The schematic diagram is as follows :

ip hash,

When the user first accesses , Use polling or weighted polling to allocate resources , And then to the client request ip Conduct hash operation , And then according to hash The result will be the same client ip The request is distributed to the same server for processing , Can solve session The problem of not sharing . The schematic diagram is as follows :

Nginx Implement reverse proxy

Reverse proxy and load balancing complement each other , It's one thing , So merge and analyze . Reverse proxy , Hide service providers , Steps are as follows :

 1.  increase Add two virtual service hosts , As shown below :

 1  server {
 2 listen 8080;
 3  server_name localhost;
 4 location / {
 5  root html2;
 6  index index.html index.htm;
 7  }
 8  }
 9  server {
10 listen 8081;
11  server_name localhost;
12 location / {
13  root html3;
14  index index.html index.htm;
15  }
16 }

The screenshot is as follows :

2. increase upstream Load balancing node , The two services point to 8080,8081 Two virtual hosts , As shown below :

1 # Add a load balancing node 
2  upstream {
3 server;
4 server;
5 }

The screenshot is as follows :

3. Increase the number of service nodes , Configure the list of proxy services , As shown below :

proxy_pass Used to point to a defined list of services

 1 # Add a new service node 
 2  server {
 3 listen 80;
 4  server_name;
 5 location / {
 6 #root html3;
 7 #index index.html index.html;
 8 proxy_pass;
 9  }
10 }

The screenshot is as follows :

4. Switch to /usr/local/nginx/sbin Under the table of contents , start-up nginx, As shown below :

5. Open the browser , Enter the domain name .

nginx The default load balancing policy is polling , You can see , After entering the domain name , As you refresh the page , The contents of the two ports alternate , As shown below :

8080 Port services , As shown below :

8081 port , The contents are as follows :

Nginx Load balancing

At the load balancing node , Configuration weight 【8080 Port services have 1/3 Probability of ,8081 Port services have 2/3 Probability of 】 As shown below :

1 # Add a load balancing node 
2  upstream {
3 server weight=1;
4 server weight=2;
5 }

The screenshot is as follows :

Then reload nginx that will do , Refresh the page in the browser , Will be found 8080 The number of calls is about 1/3,8081 The number of calls is about 2/3 .

Nginx Of ip hash Strategy

ip_hash:nginx Will make the same client ip Request the same server . about session Storage on the server side plays an important role , Otherwise, for the same client , If the service node is different every time you visit , You can't judge whether to log in or not session The content of judgment . use ip_hash Let the same client access the same server every time , Avoid the need to log in repeatedly .

1 # Add a load balancing node 
2  upstream {
3 server weight=1;
4 server weight=2;
5  ip_hash;
6 }

Configure load balancing , except weight Outside , There are other parameters , As shown below :

  1. down, Represents the current server Do not participate in load balancing temporarily .
  2. backup, Reserved backup machine . When everything else is not backup When the machine breaks down or is busy , Only request backup machine , So this machine has the least pressure .
  3. max_fails, Number of requests allowed to fail , The default is 1. When the maximum number of times is exceeded , return proxy_next_upstream Module definition error .
  4. fail_timeout, After going through max_fails After failure , Time out of service .max_fails You can talk to fail_timeout Use it together .

That's all Nginx Configure knowledge about reverse proxy and load balancing , The purpose is to throw and turn jade , Discuss together .


Send Lin Zifang to Jingci temple at dawn

【 author 】 Yang Wanli   【 Dynasty 】 The song dynasty

After all, West Lake is in June , Scenery is not related to Four seasons are the same .

The lotus leaves are endless , The lotus against the sun is different .


  1. HTML + CSS + JavaScript to achieve cool Fireworks (cloud like particle text 3D opening)
  2. HTML + CSS + JavaScript realizes 520 advertising love tree (including music), which is necessary for programmers to express themselves
  3. Solve the problem of Web front-end deployment server (it can be deployed online without a server)
  4. HTML + CSS + JS make wedding countdown web page template (520 / Tanabata Valentine's Day / programmer advertisement)
  5. What else can driverless minibus do besides "Park connection"?
  6. Cloud native leads the era of all cloud development
  7. NRM mirror source management tool
  8. Bring it to you, flex Jiugong
  9. Lolstyle UI component development practice (II) -- button group component
  10. Deconstruction assignment in ES6
  11. Luo 2 peerless Tang clan was officially launched. The official gave a key point, and the broadcast time was implied
  12. 20初识前端HTML(1)
  13. 当新零售遇上 Serverless
  14. 20 initial knowledge of front-end HTML (1)
  15. When new retail meets serverless
  16. [golang] - go into go language lesson 5 type conversion
  17. [golang] - go into go language lesson 6 conditional expression
  18. HTML5(八)——SVG 之 path 详解
  19. HTML5 (8) -- detailed explanation of SVG path
  20. 需要开通VIP以后页面内容才能复制怎么办?控制台禁用javascript即可
  21. Web前端|CSS入门教程(超详细的CSS使用讲解,适合前端初学者)
  22. 实践积累 —— 用Vue3简单写一个单行横向滚动组件
  23. Serverless 全能选手,再下一城
  24. What if you need to open a VIP to copy the page content? Just disable JavaScript on the console
  25. Web front end | CSS introductory tutorial (super detailed CSS explanation, suitable for front-end beginners)
  26. Practice accumulation - write a single line horizontal scroll component simply with vue3
  27. Dili Reba is thin again. She looks elegant and high in a strapless hollow skirt, and her "palm waist" is beautiful to a new height
  28. Serverless all-round player, next city
  29. The difference between MySQL semi synchronous replication and lossless semi synchronous replication
  30. Vue表单设计器的终极解决方案
  31. The ultimate solution for Vue form designer
  32. Nginx从理论到实践超详细笔记
  33. Yu Shuxin's red backless swimsuit is split to the waist and tail, with a concave convex figure and excessive color matching, and his face is white to dazzling
  34. Nginx ultra detailed notes from theory to practice
  35. 【动画消消乐|CSS】086.炫酷水波浪Loading过渡动画
  36. typecho全站启用https
  37. CCTV has another popular employee. The off-site interpretation is very professional, and the appearance ability is no less than that of Wang Bingbing
  38. [animation Xiaole | CSS] 086. Cool water wave loading transition animation
  39. Enable HTTPS in Typecho
  40. 50天用JavaScript完成50个web项目,我学到了什么?
  41. 根据JavaScript中原生的XMLHttpRequest实现jQuery的Ajax
  42. What have I learned from completing 50 web projects with JavaScript in 50 days?
  43. "My neighbor doesn't grow up" has hit the whole network. There are countless horse music circles, and actor Zhou Xiaochuan has successfully made a circle
  44. 根据JavaScript中原生的XMLHttpRequest实现jQuery的Ajax
  45. Implement the Ajax of jQuery according to the native XMLHttpRequest in JavaScript
  46. Implement the Ajax of jQuery according to the native XMLHttpRequest in JavaScript
  47. 30 + women still wear less T-shirts and jeans. If they wear them like stars, they will lose weight
  48. 数栈技术分享前端篇:TS,看你哪里逃~
  49. Several stack technology sharing front end: TS, see where you escape~
  50. 舍弃Kong和Nginx,Apache APISIX 在趣链科技 BaaS 平台的落地实践
  51. Abandon the landing practice of Kong and nginx, Apache apisik on the baas platform of fun chain technology
  52. 浪迹天涯king教你用elementui做复杂的表格,去处理报表数据(合并表头,合并表体行和列)
  53. 前端HTML两万字图文大总结,快来看看你会多少!【️熬夜整理&建议收藏️】
  54. Wandering around the world king teaches you to use elementui to make complex tables and process report data (merge header, merge table body rows and columns)
  55. 路由刷新数据丢失 - vuex数据读取的问题
  56. Front end HTML 20000 word graphic summary, come and see how much you can【 Stay up late to sort out & suggestions]
  57. Route refresh data loss - vuex data reading problem
  58. Systemctl系统启动Nginx服务脚本
  59. Systemctl system startup nginx service script
  60. sleepless